INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ORGANISATIONS
International Union of Official Travel Organisations
The rapid growth of International tourism after the First World War made many nations feel the need for co-operation between national tourist bodies. Accordingly an international conference was held in Hague in the year 1925. The conference led to the setting up of the international union of national tourist propaganda organisations. But with the advent of Second World War the conference had to discontinue its practical activities. After the Second World War a conference of national tourist organisation was held in London in 1946 to discuss the restoration and reconstruction of travel facilities destroyed by the war. And in q947 the international union of official travel organisation was formed.
The supreme body of the IUOTO is the general assembly which meets every year
The General Assembly
The general assembly consists of full and associate members. And it elects the President, The Vice President and the members of the Executive Committee and the Auditors. The assembly is responsible to consider the applications for new membership.
The Executive Committee
It consists of 18 full members and represents the various geographical areas. The committee is presided over by the president and the vice presidents
Following regional commissions were created by the IUOTO
1. The Regional Travel Commission for Europe
2. The African travel commission
3. The regional travel commission for the Pacific and East Asia
4. The South Asian Travel Commission
5. The Middle East Travel Commission
6. The Regional Travel Commission for the Americans
IUOTO has the following technical committees
1. Committee on the elimination of travel barriers
2. Research committee
3. Travel plan Committee
4. Committee on travel development
5. Transport committee
The Secretariat General
It si located in Geneva and is the principal executive body for the decisions of the general assembly and the executive committee. It ensures the liaison between the members of the IUOTO
The objectives of the organisation are the following
1. To promote the economic development of countries through tourist
2. To enhance the social and cultural role of tourism in the life of nation
3. To supply its members to the results of tourist market research and to give information about the developments in this field
4. To protet the interest of tourist industry
India joined IUOTO in the year 1950
Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA)
PATA was founded in the year 1951 as a non-profit corporation to stimulate interest in the Pacific region as a vacation land and to develop, promote and facilitate travel to and among the many pacific destinations. The founder of the association is Mr.Lorrin Thurston a leading newspaper publisher in Honolulu. The association had 44 founder members. Its headquarters is San Francisco. PATA has its own director for Europe who is based in London and works to promote traffic from the European market into the pacific region. PATA’s first Asian office was opened in Manila in 1976.
The activities of PATA include assisting small and upcoming destinations to develop their infrastructure providing experts, planning group travel schemes and provide up to date information in the field of tourism. Its publication “Pacific Travel News” is recognised by wholesale and retail travel agents as an important source of information material about pacific region. PATA has also published “Pacific Area Destination Handbook” which is a comprehensive handbook in 31 pacific destinations. Besides this a hotel directory and a travel guide distinct the hotels, resorts, and travel services in the pacific region has been published by PATA. The organisation provides meeting point for the people involved in all aspects of travel trade
PATA has nine categories of membership
1. Active Government
2. Associate Government
3. Active Carrier
4. Associate Carrier
5. Active Industry
7. Affiliated Allied
Active government members means official organisation designated by the government of any nation, territory of any nation, territory or political division in the pacific area fully or partially
Associate government members are an organisation charged with the responsibility of the domestic or overseas promotion of tourism as designated by the government of designation in the pacific area.
Active career members consist of any government recognised registered or certified air or steamship line cooperating vehicles having individual passenger capacity of more than twelve passengers and providing regular scheduled services to and within the pacific area.
Associate career members consist of government recognise passenger carrier operating vehicles and having a capacity of more than twelve passengers and providing regular schedule common carriage passenger service or which does not provide passenger service on the regular common carriage basis as prescribed for active carrier members.
Active industry members consists of hotel organisation having one or more hotels with a total of one thousand or more guest rooms in one or more pacific areas and tour operators organisation excluding air or ship transportation
Allied members consist of travel agencies, tour operators having programmes in pacific travel industry.
An affiliated allied member consists of branch offices of an allied member travel agency or tour operator.
Associate members include firms and organisations such as communication media, media representatives, advertising, public relations and research agencies having definite interest in pacific travel.
Sustaining members consist of organisations, firms and individuals whose commercial and cultural interest in the judgement of board of directors, with further contribute to the aims of the association. India is an associate member of PATA since 1957 and became an active member in 1964.
To assist in the fulfilment of the objectives of the PATA the board of directors has the power to encourage the development and to establish PATA chapter at any place in the world. The primary purpose of a chapter is to conduct continuing education programmes to keep PATA members aware of the changes in pacific travel. Specific objectives of the chapter are as follows
1. To bring together representatives of PATA members at regular intervals to develop a closer working relationship and a better understanding of travel matters as such that relate to the pacific area
2. To obtain uniformity and combine action by members in pursuing national and local policies within the frame work of PATA.
3. To implement specific PARTA objectives and projects
4. To pass to appropriate government nt and official organisations such matters approved by PATA and obtain action when required.
5. To process generally and to obtain opinions of members of the chapters on any PATA requirement on objective
6. To provide a forum which will enable the individual chapter memebrs to conduct their various assigned responsibilities for selling travel and providing services to visitors to the pacific in a more effective manner
There are two types of Chapters
1. Area chapters
2. Promotional chapters
PATA AND INDIA
India was admitted as an associate government member in 1957. The constitution of PATA was amended suitably to enable India and other south Asian countries to become associate government members. India became an active member in 1964. India was the first country to enter PATA from among the countries which boarded on the pacific but were not in the pacific region
PATA Indian chapter as organised in 1969. This chapter has 98 members with representation from central department of tourism, ITDC, Indian Airlines, Air India leading travel agencies in India, hotels, tour operators etc.
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)
As a result of rapid expansion in the network of international airlines in the years following Second World War a need for world wide regulation on air traffic was felt by many countries. Consequently an international conventions was formed by Franklin De Russ welt the president of USA in the year 1944. The convention formed two bodies IATA and ICAO
The International air transport association is the global organisation for virtually all the international carriers. The principal function of IATA is to simplify and speed the movement of persons and goods from any point on the world air network to any other by a combination of rules. This is accompanied by a single ticket got at a single price in one currency. The ticket is valid everywhere for the same amount of quality or service. The same principles applied to the movement of cargo and mail.
The IATA provides a wide variety of services.
1. The global planning of international time tables.
2. Standardisation of intercompany communication and reservation system
3. The international coordination of telecommunication network and computer system
4. Single formula for ticket and railway bill
5. Training of travel agents
6. To regulate legal questions of general concerns to develop security measures.
7. To examine and solve the problems registered by tourism and the flow of passengers and goods in the airports and to establish procedures and technical notes
IATA is a non-government organisation. It has three traffic conferences
1. Western hemisphere
2. Europe, Africa, and the Middle East
3. Asia and Australia
It headquarters is located at Canada. Regional technical offices are located at Geneva, London and Nairobi. There are six committees
1. Executive Committee
2. Financial Committee
3. Legal Committee
4. Medical Committee
5. Technical Committee
6. Traffic Committee
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO)
ICAO was formed in 1944 as a specialised agency of the United Nations. ICAO has a membership of over 150 nations. The Headquarters of the organisation is located at Montreal-Canada. Its regional offices are at Mexico City, Lima, Paris, Cairo Bangkok and Dakar.
The difference between IATA and ICAO is that IATA is a non-government organisation, but ICAO is organisation of various governments in the world.
1. To ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world
2. To encourage the cost of aircrafts design and operation of peaceful purpose
3. To encourage the development of airways, airports and navigation facilities for international civil aviation
4. Meet the needs of the people of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport
5. Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition
6. Ensure that the rights of contracting countries are fully respected and that every contracting country has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines.
7. Avoid discrimination between contracting countries.
8. Promote safety of flights in international air navigation
9. Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics.
In addition to the above ICAO through its various proposals, price for the reduction of customs, immigrations, public health and other formalities in order to facilitate air transportation. The organisation provides technical assistance in developing civil aviation programmes. Development of regional plans for ground facilities and services needed for international flying is another important function of the organisation.
ICAO has an assembly which is the principal organ. All the members of the organisation are members of the assembly. It meets every three years tributes in detail the work of the organisation and sets the policy for the next three years. The organisation has a council which is comprised of 30 states and is elected by the assembly gives adequate representation to member states of major importance in air transport, those member states not otherwise facilities for the international civil air navigation and those member state not otherwise included and whose election will ensure that all major geographical areas of the world are represented.
There are subsidiary body
1. Air Navigation Commission
Composed of 12 members elected the council
2. Air Transport Committee
Opened to council members
3. Legal Committee
On which all members of ICAO may be represented
India is an elected member of the council since it became a member of ICAO
INTERNATIONAL HOTEL ASSOCIATION
The International Hotel Association (IHA) formed in 1947 is today the international organisation for the hospitality industry world-wide. It has regional offices at Latin America and Africa. The international secretariat is in Paris. Another regional office is functioning at Kathmandu-Nepal for south Asia region. IHA foundation contributes ot the development of education particularly the hotel industry by making grants to educational institutions and by finding scholarships. It also contributes to research; promote projects in developing countries that help these countries to their social & economic programme.
The 26th congress of IHA was held in New Delhi from 9 to 15th October 1988. The disprestigious congress had delegates from over 140 countries. The congress helped the Indian hospitatlity industry in exchanging view points and experience at the various sessions.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
Based in Geneva, the main responsibility of the organisation is the eradication of epidemics, the improvement of the sanitation and other aspects of hygiene. WHO through a system of notification declares certain areas as infected by epidemics and as such arranges to impose health control on travellers. The regulations regarding health certificate immunisation certificate and quarantine on passengers travelling from one country to another are the special responsibilities of WHO
WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION (WTO)
It is an inter-governmental technical body came into existence on 2nd January 1975 by the transportation of IUOTO into WTO, because of the need for a world body which is able to deal with tourism programmes at government develop. WTO links national tourist organisations and studies general problems to facilitate and include travel between and within member countries. WTO became an executive agency of United Nations national development programme in 1976 in order to intensify its effors to promote tourism particularly in developing countries through International coordination. The fundamental aim of WTO is the promotion and development of tourism with a view in contributing economic development, International understanding, Peace and prosperity and universal respect for a country and observance of human rights and fundamental freedom for all without distinction to either race, language or religion.
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